Friday, October 23, 2015

Linc and His Gift

The chapter "Great Rock and Roll Pauses" really got to me. Clearly Lincoln has something wrong with him but the way he enjoys music is amazing. I realized while we had a discussion in class that it shows how there is hope and that there always will be hope. The way they incorporate that is creative and I loved it. I personally enjoy music very much and there are many things I love about it. I enjoy the feeling of the beat and how different some of them sound. I could honestly sit and press my hand against a sub and feel the bass all day long because music makes me feel some type of way. This is why I enjoy singing too, because I feel inspired and love how music is not guessable. The way Linc loves pauses makes me think about it more and enjoy them more as well. The fact that music is his way of expressing himself makes me have an at home feeling. This chapter really got to me and I made me look at the blankness inside of a song differently.

Thursday, October 22, 2015

Unconditional love is not earned, but given and should be treated with gratitude

Today, I feel like a lot of teens and kids in general don't appreciate their parents as much as they deserve or maybe they don't appreciate them at all. Parents so much for their kids, and the sad thing is, they don't even realize it. Sadly, as a teenage boy, I fall guilty to this a lot and a lot more than I should.

As a son to a father who is made the exact same way as I am, we have a very special relationship. When people joke about wanting a someone who finishes their sentences because they know each other so well, that is me and my dad. I know what he is going to say before he even says it. I know what he is trying to say when he can't find the right words for his thoughts. There have been several times where me, my mom and dad are talking and my dad tries to explain something to my mom, but he words it in an unclear fashion (not intentionally), and after sever times of trying to reword his thoughts and failing, I say, "Mom hes trying to say Blank." He then proceeds to say thank you, joking, as if he were also getting frustrated with himself. The point is, I know my dad very well and he knows me just as well. We are the same person, just 30 some odd years apart.

Now you think for someone who knows the in and outs of someone would appreciate everything they did, wrong. I don't always see the awesome things my parents do for me. My parents do amazing things for me every day and i rarely see it, simply because it seems normal to me. That is their job. That is what they signed up for when they had kids. They are suppose to love me unconditionally.

But as if grown older, I see it more and more. How much I should be grateful towards my parents. For even in the smallest things, they always have my best interest in mind. They may love me unconditionally, no matter what I do, but that doesn't mean I always deserve it or it should be like that no matter what I do. But, that's the amazing thing about unconditional love. Even when we don't deserve it or we are at our worst, that love is still there.

So, take a minute to think about everything your parents (or who ever raised you) have done for you. It may be a little or it may be a lot, but it's time as young adults, that we start to appreciate every little thing our parents have done for us, especially the day to day little things, that they do just... to make you smile.

Monday, October 19, 2015

Political Rhetoric

Political candidates use lots of ethos, pathos, and logos to form their argument. With their arguments, they try to persuade the people of America to vote for them. In order to grasp the attention of Americans, political candidates try to connect with the audience. By connecting with the audience, they use lots of pathos. They use stories that the people could relate to or they speak on topics that Americans find very familiar. The 2016 campaign is a great example of where you can find the use of these rhetorical terms.

Hillary Clinton...Assertive or Domineering?

This week was the Democratic debate on CNN. Through out the whole debate, you could never forget about Hillary. She made her presence known at every single moment she possibly could. While this could be seen as being assertive and dedicated, but she seemed to somehow sneak her opinion into every topic that was brought up. No other candidate spoke on every topic except Ms. Clinton. Also, she always went way over her time. Like, WAY over. Her talkativeness caused other candidates to get frustrated because they're opinion wasn't being heard because she was taking up all their time, and when they finally got around to the others, they were cut way shorter than she was because they had to move along. Hillary only "won" the debate because she was basically the only person talking. Watch Clinton in the debate here.

Friday, October 16, 2015

Loss of Heroes In a Postmodern World

Postmodernism a late-20th-century style and concept in the arts, architecture, and criticism that represents a departure from modernism and has at its heart a general distrust of grand theories and ideologies as well as a problematical relationship with any notion of “art.” Postmodernism has been steadily growing in popularity since its inception. If postmodernism works are really analyzed you can find a constant theme, heroes don't exist.

Heroes are key elements to most forms of storytelling. Most stories have a main hero who defeats evil and saves the day. In postmodern stories though, the hero seems to disappear. For example, in the book "A Visit From The Goon Squad" the reader follows a large roster of characters, but none of them are the "hero". All the characters are shown as flawed people trying to figure themselves out, whether it's the kleptomaniac, Sasha or if its the man trying to recapture is libido, Bennie. The characters all try to overcome their flaws, but fall too short.

Another example shows up in Quentin Tarantino's postmodern classic, Pulp Fiction, the idea of there being a hero is lost. The film follows three main characters;Vincent Vega, Jules Winnfield, and Butch Coolidge. All of these characters are criminals and murderers, and the supporting cast doesn't contribute a hero character either. Even a cop depicted in this film turned out to be a sadistic rapist. This only leaves one question, why can't there be a hero in a postmodern story?

The answer leads back to the definition of postmodernism. Postmodernism is many times seen as a critique of "modern" ideas, which explains why we can't have heroes. Although everyone likes to see the hero defeat evil and ride off into the sunset, we also like to blur the lines between good and evil. It has been a modern theme to embrace the dark heroes. American culture has been obsessed with the dark hero for quite some time, explaining why characters like Batman have a larger following than their clean cut counterparts like Superman. Critics say the dark hero appeals to the people more because they seem more human or relate able.

The point of a hero is to be larger than life, its part of what makes a person a hero, they aren't supposed to be relate able. The postmodernists see this and say, if the people want a flawed hero, then they don't truly want a hero. Therefore, erasing the hero from a postmodern world. This satirizes American stories and the direction the culture is going. A world without heroes.

Views On Postmodern Writing

So I've only recently been really introduced to the Postmodern style of writing, but I'm already starting to really like it. It makes it so much easier to read and understand the story, especially if we're talking about the style in which "Ask Me If I Care" was written. But, as most other things, there are also downsides to writing like this.
Writing in a Postmodern style, while allowing for a lot more understanding and comprehension of the story, can also do the complete opposite. Writing like this makes it a lot easier to confuse your audience, as well as butcher the story that you were trying to tell. Because of this, writing in the Postmodern style is kind of a double-edged sword--if you don't know how to wield it right, you're probably going to screw up bad.

Can We Really Predict the Future?

In the chapter "Safari" from the novel A Visit from the Goon Squad, author Jennifer Egan employs a writing technique that is not typically used, the use of flash forwards. Throughout the story, Egan writes little snapshots of character's futures and readers start considering what actions the characters did in the present that affected the character's futures for better, or for worse.

In "Safari", Egan highlights a theory called The Butterfly Effect, a theory that states that every decision one makes, no matter how little, will effect and potentially alter their future in someway. In "Safari" Egan exemplifies the Butterfly Effect with her use of flash forwards. As readers know character's fates, little actions characters perform can seem very impactful to character's futures.

The concept of the Butterfly Effect could drive individuals to live in fear and be extremely cautious with their actions. But, living in fear is useless, because there is no true telling of what the future will hold or what altering effects individual's actions will have on their futures.

Also, if every action can potentially alter an individual's future there is really no way to predict the future because it is constantly evolving. Having the knowledge of one's future is futile because it is not set in stone. Egan exemplifies the fact that knowing one's future is useless knowledge by giving the readers the ability to see character's futures by showing that there is really nothing readers can do with that knowledge. All readers can do is continue to flip through the pages and enjoy the unpredictable ride.

Thursday, October 15, 2015

Time is a Goon

One of the themes explored in A Visit From the Goon Squad, more specifically in A to B, is the idea that "time is a goon". This simple phrase has a lot of meaning behind it. Bosco is the one who originally says it, on page 127: "Time's a goon, right? Isn't that the expression?"

Goon squads are pretty self-explanatory. They are groups of people, often associated with a gang, who would hurt and intimidate those who disagreed with them. The original goon squads came about as a result of unionizing. The union workers would hire goon squads to threaten and assault non-union workers and parties, and anti-union groups did the exact same thing back.

When Bosco says "time's a goon," what he means is that the inevitable passage of time will scare you, hurt you and rob you of your innocence. This is a theme that we see explored over and over. Benny used to be a young, successful record producer. After enough time passed, his business was sinking, he got a divorce and he lost his sex drive. La Doll used to be the name that everyone knew, but she made one horrible mistake and she was swept away by the sands of time. Scotty and Bosco wanted to spend their whole lives like they did when they were young. But time caught up to them too, and they became old, sad and washed out.

"Time's a goon" has never been an expression used by anyone- that's the whole point. Bosco has lost touch with pop culture. When he was young and famous, he probably knew every popular slang term like the back of his hand. But time did what it does best, and took that away from him too. The phrase sounds as rusty and jaded as Bosco himself, because it is.

I am sixteen years old. With every passing year of my life, I have felt more in control of myself and, as a result, more happy. For years, I assumed that with every single year my life would become almost ubiquitously better. But what if in sixteen years from now I feel the opposite? How do I know that I'm not going to start losing my hair when I'm 25, or my eyesight at 30? What if I wake up 40 years old and feel like I've let everything pass me by?

Those "what-ifs" are what truly make time a goon. You can see it around the corner. I could easily spend the best ten years of my life worrying about the worst. In fact, I've probably already spent too much time worrying about my life at age 70. There is no easy answer to any of these questions- no happy ending, no A to B. What is going to happen, will. Time will chew you up and spit you out. Let's just hope we can find something meaningful along the way.

Men, socially acceptable dressing and behavior

So, today I was helping my best friend by borrowing him some clothes of mine for another school's homecoming that he attending. His date was wearing a beautiful black dress. He knew I dressed well, so he asked if I had any black dress clothes. I did in fact have a whole outfit, which was primarily black. It consisted of: nice black jeans, a black dress shirt with a grey vest to go over it, a deep red skinny tie and a pair of grey casual dress shoes. After describing this to him, he happily accepted and we set a time for him to come pick it up. I also had many other ties that would work with this outfit, so I said "Just take your favorite." He had been hanging out with his date before picking up the clothes, so when he did pick them up, she was with him. Happily, I introduced myself and invited them in. Him knowing that she cared a lot more about how they dressed as a date, he pretty much let her decide what he wore. Shortly before they left, he asked, "So what about the vest?" She responded by saying, "This isn't prom, you shouldn't wear a vest," in a snarky tone. He quickly said "Really?" He said this as I held a perplexed and slightly perturbed look. This pricked me, as I often casually wear this to school or to an outing. Is there not only a dress quota for women but also for men? I feel like this annoyed me more than it should have, but is it no longer okay for men to dress fashionably? Are men expected to only wear jeans and a couple variations of shirts? I think that because of this expectation, men have fallen away from dressing nicely or looking "dapper." The new nice is a solid colored polo, plaid or checkered button up. 

As a man, I feel like it is hard to find a varied and personal sense of fashion. There are several factors that contribute to this dilemma. There aren't a lot of different styles or combinations of clothing that men can mix and match. It's hard to break the boundaries in terms of fashion because there are only a few categories men have available and are allowed to fit into. There is: Business dressy, business casual, preppy, casual, and hipster. Of course there are a few deviations from these categories, but those deviations don't go far. I feel like this mostly derives from social norms and girls' expectancy for what guys should wear. Not only that, but men limiting how they dress simply because of how they think a man should act and what a man should be. I see a lot of men and boys stuck in a mind set of "Men don't care about fashion, that's for women," or " "Only models dress like that," or "People would think i'm weird if I dressed like that." 

I have found that defining my own sense of fashion to be very liberating. I personally enjoy wearing a nice dress shirt with a vest, rocking a casual blazer, or wearing a skinny tie. Of course every man doesn't want to dress like this, which is totally cool. I find the look classy, but others may not. The point is to dress to your style and not let society define your fashion. If you enjoy wearing jeans and a graphic shirt from a thrift shop and you feel like that represents you, then by all means, rock it.   

Use of the Availability Heuristic in the Democratic Debate

In psychology, heuristics are defined as mental “shortcuts” to help people remember and process information more quickly. One of the more common of these is the availability heuristic. Defined as “estimating the likelihood of events based on their availability in memory; if instances come readily to mind (perhaps because of their vividness), we presume such events are common”

O’Malley makes good use of this heuristic saying “And I ran and promised people that together we could turn that around. And we put our city on a path to reduce violent crime, or part one of crime by more than any other major city in America over the next 10 years. I did not make our city immune to setbacks. But I attended a lot of funerals, including one for a family of seven who were firebombed in their sleep for picking up the phone in a poor African-American neighborhood and calling the police because of drug dealers on their corner.” He then goes on to further explain how he lowered crime all around Baltimore.

O’Malley brings up this firebombed family to humanize the problem, and heroize himself. Instead of being seen as “The man who lowered crime rates in Baltimore”, he’s now “Presidential possibility O’Malley, who stopped families’ homes from being firebombed by lowering crime rates.” His achievement is also going to be that much more memorable, due to the human brain’s tendency to remember more vivid experiences (In this case a firebombed family’s funeral) over ones that are less so (numbers).

Throughout the entirety of the debate, all of the candidates made ample use of tactics like this one to try and make their achievements be that much more memorable than their competitors.

You (Plural) and the Pool Motif

The story "You (Plural)" from Jennifer Egan's book A Visit From the Good Squad is a flash forward from another story that revolves around the friend group of Rhea and Jocelyn, although they're all 40 and either happy, dying, or just disappointing. A large theme of this chapter is resentment towards people due to the past. Jocelyn seems to be slightly jealous of Rhea and her happy life, angry at Lou for many things regarding herself and Rolph, and then angry at herself for not being successful.

There is also the idea of the pool, which was a motif throughout the story, seeming to represent life and good times. As Rhea walks through the house to visit Lou on his deathbed, looking back at the memories she had, especially the pool. Plenty of parties were held there and Jocelyn, along with Rolph, enjoyed themselves throughout their teen and young-adult years. Later in the chapter, Lou requests to be next to the pool with the girls by his side. He seems to want a final look at his happy memories, a lot of which belong in or beside this pool. At one point, Jocelyn has a hallucination of her pushing in and drowning Lou in the pool in a fit of rage over everything he's done to her as well as other people. In this hallucination, the tubes and wires connected to Lou come undone from his veins and spray colors everywhere into the pool. This may represent how Lou ended up tainting Jocelyn's life and therefore happy times with his shenanigans and manipulations. After this hallucination fades, Jocelyn looks Lou straight in the eyes and tells him he deserves to die.

Poor old (or not so old) Rolph. He shot himself because he was incorrectly inserted into the postmodern world, and was one of Jocelyn's last remaining ties to Lou other than Lou himself. Memories go in and out throughout this chapter, ranging from happy ones at parties, curious ones of inspecting each others' bodies, and sad ones of suicide. It seems to be implied that Rolph was the only child of Lou's that he actually cared about, and being reminded that he killed himself 20 years prior to when this story takes place still hurts/haunts him. Lou may be ruthlessly manipulative for his own personal gain, but it shows that he does still have feelings.

Politician's Best Friends: Ethos and Logos

During the 2016 presidential debate there was a common theme between each of the candidates intros; they all established their ethos. It is imperative that politicians establish their ethos right off the bat. A politician’s first impression on the voters depends heavily on whether the politician is qualified for presidency or not. Governor Chafee was the first democrat to give his introduction. He started off by saying; “I'm the only one running for president that has been a mayor, a United States senator, and a governor.” He asserted himself as the most experienced. He then proceeded to go through his experiences as mayor, senator and governor and explain each of his accomplishments. From voting against Bush-Cheney tax cuts and the Iraq war to flaunting his pride of being scandal-free, Chafee has accomplished a lot. His accomplishments make him qualified to become president. Then Senator Webb had his turn to introduce himself. He established his ethos with the audience through his previous jobs of being an author, a journalist and a sole proprietor. He connects with the audience on the premise that he has not always been a politician. He then expressed his qualifications through his career with the military. Not only is he a Vietnam veteran but he also served as Assistant Secretary of Defense and Secretary of the Navy in the Reagan administration. Just like Chafee, he proclaimed his qualifications for president through an ethos-based approach. Martin O’Malley, Bernie Sanders and Hillary Clinton all had similar introductions. They all stated their achievements and followed up with a quick preview of their policies.

Senator Bernie Sanders loves his statistics. During many of the times Sanders spoke, he used a logos approach to either express a problem in America or back up his argument. For example, he first states “America has more people in jail than any other country on Earth.” He then connected this issue to a problem with employment within minority youths. In his intro he quoted a statistic about African-American and Hispanic youth unemployment. Fifty-two percent of African-American youths are unemployed and thirty-six percent of Hispanic youths are unemployed. Instead of building more jails, he suggested putting more money into education and jobs for kids. Later in the debate he stated, “Republicans win when there is a low voter turnout.” He backed this statement up by saying “Sixty-three percent of the American people didn't vote, eighty percent of young people didn't vote.” Sanders’ usage of statistics and factual evidence support his arguments and make them more believable and more effective. It is essential for politicians to have effective arguments. Using good rhetoric strategies and having a good argument allows for politicians to sway voters to vote for them.

A Dark Elegy for a Postmodern World

Have a Nice Life is a celebrated name in the circles of underground rock. Founded by Dan Barrett and Tim Macuga in 2000, the band has experimented in a multitude of genres such as post-rock, drone, post-punk, and various kinds of Gothic music.

Have a Nice Life's cult following has been steadily growing since 2008 when their 90 minute album Deathconsciousness was released and slowly started to get attention. Deathconsciousness is composed of 13 unforgivingly dark songs with violently distorted vocals and instruments, some of which are given rather unassuming and mellow song titles that contrast the depressing music they are assigned to (for instance "Waiting for Black Metal Records to come in the Mail").

One title that sticks out because of its explicit wording: "Holy F*****g S***: 40,000"
Judging by the title one could assume the track that accompanies this vulgar title would be loud and angry, but the lyrics are somber and explain what it's like to live in a postmodern world where people are all conscious of how little a human really matters anymore.

The song begins with a simple 8bit synth pattern and soon becomes layered with acoustic guitar and distorted reverberated vocals that sing "Everything you do has been planned out in advance. The dark stars push their own will down on you." The meaning of each line is open to interpretation due to its vague nature, but I understand this to mean that as of this point in time, humans no longer have free will because a higher power, possibly the people controlling society and media, dictates what each person must do. It continues with "And wolves all tear themselves apart better in packs. That's just a function we will have to work on through." I interpret this to mean people separate into predefined groups and there is nothing we can do at this point to get rid of this structure.

Tim's cynicism becomes more tangible as the song continues. "We're machines that eat and breathe and look really cool," he says. "Send me back in time and I'll bring us back in line. Just tell me whose mother I have to kill." Humans are no longer people to the vocalist, just a bunch of parts that work but nothing more. Have a Nice Life says that people essentially don't matter anymore; people are confined to a system that ensures that their image and compliance matter more than their actual existence. Tim and Dan don't know when or how it happened but there is no escaping it now, other than death. This is implied by the number 40,000 in the title, a reference to the number of suicides per year in the United States.

Whether the track's dark sound and lyricism interest you or not, it is still a unique example of postmodernist thinking in music.

Warning: Inappropriate Language
Have A Nice Life - "Holy F*****g S***: 40,000

Selling the General

In this Chapter of the book you discover Dolly's life. Dolly is an assistant for the General who is a dictator and her job is to make him look better to the public. During the first few pages it shows the basics of her job and how she has to talk to a co-worker named Arc. Dolly realizes that the General's picture in the newspaper wasn't very bright looking so she talked to Arc and gave a suggestion which was to cut the ties off the hat and smile for the picture. Later she goes to meet the General but she encounters some problem when the General isn't there, she is bringing her daughter but hiding the truth, and she has to bring a famous movie star. When they arrive at the General's house, they get told that the General is gone, so they then decide to meet with him where he is by traveling with Arc. As they walked through the town they discover how everyone acts around certain people, including Arc. Arc then asks them if they wanted any fruit from the vendors and Lulu, Dolly's daughter, says yes. She then asks for a star fruit and takes a bite and becomes excited and says, "Mom, you have to try this". Dolly then realizes that she hasn't heard Lulu say mom for about a year because she had been in jail for manslaughter. Finally Dolly relieves that she has been hiding that Lulu was an "accident" and Dolly would show Lulu pictures of an old ex-boyfriend and say he had died.

The theme of this chapter is innocence. Lulu is the definition of innocence because she isn't harmed by anything. Even though she walked through a city of people ruled by a dictator, she still managed to find happiness and smile. Lulu doesn't know about her actual dad who was a one night stand and a movie star client of her moms. In this chapter Lulu doesn't see the world like how most people see it and she is that light of innocence that keeps things in motion and keeps everyone believing.

A to B

A to B focuses mainly on the character Stephanie, and also her husband Bennie. This chapter started off with Stephanie feeling that her rock in roll self, did not fit into the Crandale, republican town. It's like a preteen or a teenager trying to fit in to what they think the "cool crowd" might be, as stereotypical as it sounds. Where did this idea come from?

It's hard to figure out why do not only kids, but people in general not see themselves as good enough, or are always striving to be somebody else. It's a concept that is difficult to find the answer to but insanely easy to fall into. It's like a drug, once somebody finds something about themselves that somebody else dislikes then they can't help but rack their brain on the reasoning behind this person finds something wrong with them. That something is also known as a flaw, and this chapter brought out this new idea. The idea being, what makes a flaw a flaw?

In this postmodernism world, our society's defintion of the word "flaw" must still exist because if it didn't then Stephanie wouldn't be worried about fitting in. A "flaw" is something that should describe an imperfection in a situation, not a person. A genuine flaw that occured was Bennie sleeping with Kathy. A mistake that someone else makes is what can bring another person down and they pick at these ideas that something is wrong with them, that they should change. 

Stephanie's knew before she actually confirmed that Bennie cheated on her again, from prior expierence. Bennie cheated on her and those long term effects stayed inside of Stephanie, a big toll on why she felt the need to fit into this town of stereotypical blonde, republicans. Flaws come out from other people's words and actions. If a person could manage to go through our society without hearing another person's opinion on their appearance or personality, or anybody else's than they would never feel what our society thinks a "flaw" is. 

Wednesday, October 14, 2015

You (Plural)

During the chapter "You (Plural)", You discover that it is 20 years later. Much has happening since including, Lou having a second stroke and the "gang" not being very close anymore. Rhea and Jocelyn both come to visit Lou at his house during his final days of life. They started with small talk and Jocelyn realized how successful Rhea had been over the years. She knows that Rhea got married and had 3 kids and now lives in Seattle while she was living at her mothers going to UCLA working on her B.A. After some small talk Rhea and Lou talk about Rolph, Lou's son who died. Then, Jocelyn starts to cry and her and Rhea talk about how different their lives are. After a long period of time where Jocelyn thinks to herself about her life, her and Rhea take Lou outside for the first time in a very long time. They then stood by the pool and Jocelyn begins reliving all the memories she's had with Lou and Rolph. After Jocelyn had a angry moment where she feels like she is about to throw Lou in the pool and hold him down until he drowns but then realizes it was just an illusion. She then became angry and yelled at Lou would was still crying because she brought up Rolph. Eventually everything cools down and becomes calm and she has good memories with Rolph like when they sat on the roof all night long waiting for the sun to come up. Then she, Rhea, and Lou take hands and have a good moment of happiness.

This chapters makes me realize how things may change in your life and end abruptly but that you should never give up. In the chapter, if they had, they wouldn't have been able to live their lives like they did. Rhea ended up getting married while earlier in the book she feared that she could never find love nor hope. Also Jocelyn grew up, she discovered that she was struggling to maintain a reason to live and so she changed as a person and now she is going to UCLA to finish her degree. Later in the book you also discover that Sasha grows up and marries her college boyfriend, Drew. They even had two kids and Sasha had many terrible years even before getting to this point. This shows how people who are in the worst places can rise above it and achieve greatness and that's inspiring.

The New Era of Art

Postmodernism surfaced in the late 20th century as criticism to alternative literature, art, and other elements of culture. The meticulous craft of postmodernist art reflects changes in society and the perception of such societal ideals. In these ways, postmodernism sparked a new, progressive art movement (which still continues today) that allowed artists to use new artistic techniques and challenge traditional principles.

A well-known 'pop art' movement artist, Andy Warhol, reveals postmodernist beliefs in his image, the "Marilyn Diptych." Warhol created this picture in response to Marilyn Monroe's death in 1967.

Andy Warhol, Marilyn Diptych, 1962, acrylic on canvas, 2054x 1448 mm (Tate) © The Andy Warhol Foundation for the Visual Arts, Inc. 2015

In the image, there are several postmodernist features. On the exterior, it seems as though Warhol purely has Monroe descending in color for artistic effect, not for any underlying meaning. On one side of the picture, Monroe's iconic photographs shines in color. On the other side, the Monroes are blurry and are in black and white. Through this technique, Warhol conveys the difference between life (with color and 'excitement') and death (without color and gloomy).

Additionally, Warhol appears to display his viewpoint of American culture. Monroe's face is printed 50 times, demonstrating how widely-known she was and her appearance in the media. The repetition of her face expresses how America is absorb in the media and obsessed the power of a media image. Moreover, the repetition also conveys how America begins to increasingly depend on mass production of products (and its profits, implying that the culture is greed-driven).

Furthermore, the diptych the picture Monroe is illustrated on (take note of the brown line down the center of the photographs) provides for another example. In the Renaissance Era, Christians often used a diptych (described as hinges that attached two flat plates together) for altarpieces in churches. This fusion of methods displays how Warhol thought Americans worshiped the media and the image of celebrities excessively.

Using these newer approaches to artistic creation may be shown in an unseen way through the idea of postmodernism. The almost invisible view postmodernism may contain expresses how thinking one concept will not only be one idea, but may be perceived in a multitude of other ways.

Found Objects

In the reading found objects, you discover how many people can have "hidden" issues. The the chapter you get to meet Sasha, at the time she is 35 and she has a problem with being a Kleptomaniac. As a Kleptomaniac she enjoys taking things from people and shows no feelings towards it. In the story she steals a woman's wallet in the bathroom of the Lassimo Hotel in New York. As she is leaving with her date, Alex, she feels frantic due to the woman from the bathroom freaking out because her wallet is missing. Alex is very upset by the problem and goes to the front desk and confront the person working there and asking why the security hasn't came yet. Sasha feels bad and runs back to the bathroom and tries to put the wallet somewhere so the woman thinks she just dropped it or left it there. As she is thinking the woman walks in and Sasha says, "I'm Sorry", and "It's a problem I have". She for once felt very guilt for stealing the woman's wallet. After all this you finally realize that she is having a session with her therapist and realize how the rest of the story will unfold. This story I really enjoyed the layout of the entire thing, it really made me think. The chapter unfolded very unexpectedly but very enjoyable. The way the tension built up in less than 2 pages really pulled me into the book due to me liking book more thrilling than anything else. This chapter was great and I enjoyed reading it and would definitely recommend it to many.

Postmodern "Phairytales": Nothing is at it Seems

Postmodernism is a late-20th-century style and concept in the arts, architecture, and criticism that represents a departure from modernism and has at its heart a general distrust of grand theories and ideologies as well as a problematical relationship with any notion of “art". Much of our generation would be considered postmodernists. It does not help that our government is not only corrupt, but bankrupt, creating a distrust between postmodernists. Not only can we not trust our government with our money, but all the ideologies that they have hung over our heads growing up like a baby mobile dangling from the crib. 

One ideology that is not projected false until later on in life is that the news and media are truthful. When the news tells you that there are riots in Ferguson, Missouri, they are not fully telling you what is really going on. The news is going to tell you that the citizens of Missouri got angry at the police, while the police got angry at the citizens for not being cooperative. As the thoughts of a postmodernists illuminate like a light bulb, we question why the citizens are fighting the authority? What's really going on?

Basically our entire government is built around capitalism. All that America is driven towards is money. Democratic candidate, Bernie Sanders, can validate this in his belief, "Too few have too much, and too many too little". Our government revolves around this ideal which then effects the institutions involved with our government such as schools, hospitals, and banks. It is completely unfair of the government to rob us of our money as well as our right to an education and health care. Due to this injustice the less financially stable citizens are refraining from attending college which is causing the colleges to raise tuition. The colleges raise their tuition not only to trap and drown students in student loans, but because of the fact that less students are attending the colleges. When fewer students are attending the colleges, the colleges begin losing money as well as enrollment rates. When there are less enrollment rates, there are less students attending to pay the college funds that the colleges need to run their institution; Therefore, the colleges have to raise tuition to compensate for the money that they are losing.

Postmodernism is realizing and opposing the injustice of our government. Postmodernism is standing up for our rights as American citizens. It is hard to believe that we have learned from such a young age that it is wrong to lie and that "honest is the best policy" when we have been lied to our entire lives. Our government is unfair, but it is up to us to not fall victim to capitalism or any other immoral ideals of our country.

Tuesday, October 13, 2015

Black Lives Matter; Bernie's Appeal to Pathos

#BernieSanders displays an appeal to pathos during Democratic debate when asked the question: "Do all lives matter or do black lives matter?". "Black lives matter," was his response. Bernie appeals to emotion when he uses words like "us" and "we" and "our nation" because it sets a tone of unity. He also appeals to pathos, especially those of black people, by recognizing we need "major reforms in our corrupt criminal system" because of the killings of innocent black lives.

Clinton's Concession Helps Her Case

When discussing the legalization of recreational marijuana, Clinton continues to hold an "on the fence" answer, saying she isn't ready to say yes or no, but she agrees research needs to be done because she thinks there are too many people in jail with low, nonviolence crimes due to marijuana. She agrees with opponent Bernie Sanders on this issue in terms that they both agree that the heavy population in jail facilities for marijuana use is too high. While Clinton could be trying to play it safe and please all her supporters, she is also giving some credibility to Bernie Sanders, as well as conceding, improving her credibility as well.

Clinton Calls Out Sanders

Hilary Clinton explicitly calls out Bernie Sanders during the Democratic Debate saying he is not tough enough on guns. She backs this evidence up with facts about what bills Sanders as a Senator did and did not vote for.

Bernie's #InOurCorner

Bernie Sanders established that he stands with Planned Parenthood, stating that he wants paid leave for women and families. In depth, he wants to provide access to safe and legal abortion, expand access to birth control, and overall supports PP. By supporting Planned Parenthood, Sanders sets himself apart from the Republican candidates.

Chafee = No Scandal

When introducing themselves, the candidates immediately use logos to show their character while establishing their platforms. For example, Chafee's use of logos is his lack of a scandal, "I'm proud that over my almost 30 years of public service, I have had no scandals. I've always been honest... Had the courage to take the long-term view and I've shown good judgment. I have high ethical standards".

Black Lives Matter (Live Blog 3)

When asked by an audience member "if black lives matter or all lives matter," all candidates except one responded that black lives matter. Webb was the sole candidate to respond with "all lives matter." He went on to give an example how he helped a black soldier and "cleared his name, cleared his reputation, and fought for it." He seems to be saying that by assisting one person of color, that he should automatically be viewed as ethical. Webb previously stated that he is against affirmative action, which along with his opposition to the black lives matter movement will lose him votes of minorities.

Appreciating O'Malley (Live Blog #3)

Martin O'Malley speaks to the greatness of our country. He believes in our citizens under thirty. O'Malley acknowledges that our youth is moving our country forward as a more accepting country. I think it is important that O'Malley recognizes the youth of America to have significance while a number of the elderly simply look down on our generation. Teens and young adults are discounted for the overuse of technology, misuse of drugs, and not having a full understanding of our nation's issues. I appreciate that O'Malley can see that our generation not only understands our nation's issues, but are even pushing to overcome issues, such as gay marriage.

Clinton Calls Out Republicans

Hillary Clinton directly calls out Republicans and states the differences between the Democratic debate and the Republican debate. In doing so, she also stands up for the immigrant population, and attacks the Republicans who have "demonized hardworking immigrants and who have insulted them".

Importance of Consistent Opinions (Live Blog 2)

Bernie Sanders urges people, "to go to and see what he said in 2002" and follows with, "much of what I said I thought would happen with the destabilization did happen." Bernie is proving his unwavering views in contrast to Hilary's ever-changing opinions. So far in the debate Hilary has been called out regarding her changing views on gay marriage and going to war in Iraq. Bernie emphasizes the importance of a candidate with consistent views. If a candidate can't figure out their own opinions, are they really fit to make decisions for our nation?

Sanders Speaks the Truth (Live Blog #2)

NSA Surveillance should be shut down, says Bernie. I vividly remember the day that my middle school decided to set up 50 surveillance cameras around the inside and outside of the school. Yes, there are possibilities of terrorists threats, but America is "said to be" a free country. If America is a free country, then Americans should have the freedom to live their day to day lives without being videotaped for the purpose of security. We do have the freedom of privacy. Sanders believes in other ways of security and protecting our citizens without invading privacy.

Jim Webb Appeals to Pathos

Jim Webb is asked a controversial question about undocumented immigrants receiving Obamacare. He uses a story about how he supports undocumented immigrants receiving Obamacare because his wife is an immigrant and refugee. He talks about how she did not speak English as a child, but was eventually able to graduate from Cornell University. He discusses how this is the "American Dream" and we need to have good immigration policies in order to have people achieve the American Dream. By using real life examples, Webb is able to appeal to the Pathos of voters.

Hands Don't Lie

Each presidential candidate participating in this debate has distinct body language. These subtle movements actually can reveal a lot about the candidates and effect the audience's attitude toward them. Lincoln Chaffee, for example, moves his hands a lot when he talks, but not in a necessarily natural way. Rather, his hand motions make him seem nervous and his arguments doubtful. Bernie Sanders' motions when he is speaking are larger and more passionate, adding a sense of certainty and confidence to his arguments. 

Clinton Stays Grounded

Throughout the debate, Clinton has mentioned the fact that she has stayed rooted in her ideas and policies since the beginning. This has been rewarding for Clinton, because many of the other candidates have been called out for changing their policies too often, which is seen as unreliable to voters. For example, Sanders is called out for continually changing his policies on gun rights, so no one is really sure where he stands. In addition, Chafee is called out for changing for only being a republican for two years, and he is questioned about how voters will know that he won't change back to a republican while he is in office.

How to Empathize Using Ethos (Live Blog #1)

At the very beginning of the democratic debate, Sanders and Clinton reach out using ethos right off the bat. It's actually kind of funny that Sanders and Clinton share the same opening strategy of connecting with their audience, even though they continue to go head-and-head throughout the debate. Hilary states that she desires to equalize pay of the women in America, the audience responds with applause. She was directing this statement towards women, her objective is to uplift the women of the audience as well as gain their vote. Sanders reaches out to the elderly crowd by stating that he wants to help them pay the dues they still owe, as well as give them the health care that everyone deserves. Both reach out to crowds that they are apart of themselves, strengthening their ethos.

Bernie Lets Out a Giggle

After the host tells Sanders, "Hilary just said that her policy is tougher than yours (Bernie Sander's)", Bernie simply laughs, muttering, "Ha, not true". This response makes the audience applaud and laugh. He then goes on to make strong arguments to back up his policy. While Sanders is treating this debate a little more informally than his opponents by making such comments and reactions, he is able to connect with the audience on a different level, resulting in positive feedback .

Spider Webb

First I would like to declare that I just wanted to use that title. It has nothing to do with what I'm about to say but I still like it. Senator Webb from Virginia is trying to establish any basis he can at this point. He and the others whose names nobody can remember, probably realize that none of them are above 1% in the polls. Sanders and Clinton are who the people came for. Webb continues to attempt to establish himself in his ideologies and position mainly due to his military service. It pulls at the American heart of supporting and standing by their troops. It establishes a connection of relatability. He is a Vietnam vet, his son fought in Iraq but, nobody truly cares about what he has to say.

This May Be Bad Politics But...

Bernie's unusual politics stand out during this Democratic Debate. He not only said something to support his biggest rival, but he also continuously states opinions that the other candidates would never explicitly vocalize. This fact may be taken as poor political tact, but it instead instills the image of a fresh face in politics. His debate style mainly comprises of logos, which is redefining the conduct of politicians in this election.


Chafee said that he believed the next president should have the highest ethical standards, clearly alluding to himself. Chafee was also pointing a finger at Hillary and the scandal surrounding her emails. Anderson Cooper then asked if she wished to respond and she said in a resounding tone, "No." This refusal to respond seemed to resonate with the audience. Her response was so effective because it gave her a sense of confidence that was able to be felt on stage.

Hillary Thinks She is Overqualified

Hillary states all of the previous work she has done that makes her overqualified, and therefore she should be elected. She constantly mentions how she was Secretary of State, and her other numerous government positions she has held and she explains how these things will help her to make policy decisions in the White House. By doing this, Clinton appeals to the ethos of her voters because it enables the voters to feel like they are choosing someone who knows what they are doing, and who will lead them in the right direction.

Contrasting Tones in the Democratic Debate

Each presidential candidate has a distinct tone when discussing their views on issues. For example, Bernie Sanders consistently has a determined, almost angry tone. He addresses things realistically and straightforwardly, appearing somewhat dark, but also opening the eyes of the audience by not "decorating" issues with persuasive tactics. Hillary Clinton, on the other hand, has a more positive, pleasant tone. While on the surface she "gives the audience what they want" and she often fails to realistically evaluate today's issues, and focuses on rather idealistic solutions to them.

Democratic Socialism Requires Young Voters (Live Blog 1)

Bernie explains that democratic socialism is rooted in the idea that it is wrong that the top one tenth of 1% own almost as much wealth at the bottom 99%. Bernie believes that if more people knew what his party represented, that it would win. He uses logos and explains that republicans win when there is a low voter turnout. Last November, he states, 80% of young people did not vote. Bernie's goal of this election is to increase the amount of younger voters because he believes this demographic can win an election for a democratic socialist.

Clinton 2.0

In her opening argument, she declares her standings on opportunities for women and her past experience in offices. With each and every one of her statements, she brings it all back to her stances of past years and denying any changes of ideology or of opinion. She uses anything she has thought for even a sentence to sway opinions and her answers.

Feel the BERN

Immediately Senator Sanders is questioned on how could the American people vote for him if he defines as a socialist? He responds with the definition of his stance as a democratic socialist. He believes in socialized healthcare, etc that has worked in so many major countries. He believes that if Americans can look at the simple definitions and beliefs, then they will find the best policies and ideologies for this nations future.

Hillary and Her Vast Experience

Chafee's attacked Hillary and her former vote for the Iraq war. In response Hillary Clinton immediately appealed to ethos saying that current President Obama "valued my judgement" when she was appointed secretary of state. Hillary sent a strong message to the other candidates and American people, using her appeal to ethos she validated her experience which seemed to give her a strategic edge above the other candidates.


In his opening statement, Senator Bernie Sanders addresses the disparity of economic opportunity in America for the middle to lower classes. He highlights the high unemployment rate statistics for African Americans and Hispanic males. This stood out to me because in the Republican Presidential Candidate Debate back in September, the issues with the middle class were not clearly addressed by any of the candidates. Senators Sanders' establishes his position as the champion of the poor and the middle class.

Bernie Throwing Shade

When Sanders targets O'Malley's on his argument on gun laws, he is tearing down O'Malley's ethos. He says that O'Malley was not in the United States congress and that his argument of just moving forward is not correct.

O'Malley #FeelsTheBern

As the debate heats up between Bernie Sanders and Martin O'Malley, it's safe to say that Sanders made O'Malley #FeelTheBern by appealing to ethos. On the subject of gun control, Sanders points out his experience in congress, and in doing so, strengthens the perception that he is very experienced in this area.

O'Malley Hits the Heart

As the democratic candidates fight to voice their opinions on gun control, Martin O'Malley wastes no time in attacking the subject using pathos. While senators Clinton and Sanders raise their voices about how they know what to do with this overpowering problem in America, O'Malley talks about the two audience members who lost a daughter to gun violence. This approach immediately engages the crowd and gives O'Malley an advantage.

O'Malley Shut Down

In a question addressed to O'Malley concerning his track record as mayor in the city of Baltimore, O'Malley attempted an appeal to ethos by describing how he saved many lives through his programs. He also attempted an appeal to pathos by telling heartbreaking stories of whole families being killed by fire balls. His appeals to both ethos and pathos seemed futile however, since evidence provided by Anderson Cooper and the question itself seemed to greatly weaken his argument.

Clinton and Gun Violence

When Clinton uses the statistic that 90 people are killed a day by guns she makes a very effective argument. She is using logos, through the statistic, and pathos, through the emotion that comes from the discussion of guns. Gun violence is a sensitive subject that brings up many emotions for many Americans. Using the statistic makes the viewers think about an incident of gun violence.

Do Words Decide the Election?

One huge problem for Sanders is his self-proclaimed title as a socialist. This fact poses the question: would he have more supporters if he had the same ideas, but instead used a different title? The answer is probably yes; socialist has a negative connotation in politics in the United States. Unfortunately, many people do not know the actual meaning of socialism, but it is associated with "anti-American" ideas. The use of the word socialism can be considered a use of pathos, but the pathos could lose him the election.

Bernie Sanders: Facts on Facts on Facts

When asked how a socialist candidate like himself could win a general election in the US, Bernie Sanders responded in the best way possible. Instead of tiptoeing around the question only to find that he hadn't actually answered the question at all, Sanders got straight to the point and used logos to back up his argument. Sanders explained to the audience what a Socialist Democrat actually is, and used examples of what Socialist Democrats actually want (such as equal distribution of wealth) to get the audience on his side. This technique was simple yet effective, as Sanders made the audience believe what he was saying in an easily understood way.

Jim Webb's use of Pathos

Jim Webb, former U.S senator from Virginia, establishes pathos in his opening remarks. Not only does he state his political experiences, but he speaks of his involvement outside of the political world. Specifically, Webb states that he "fought and bled for our country" in Vietnam as a Marine. Webb's patriotism and service to his country strikes an emotional chord and strengthens his candidacy.

Bernie the Socialist

His argument over health care is very effective. When he talks about other countries that have payed leave for mothers who have a baby and take a leave form work and health care for the general public. He is appealing to the logos of the viewers because he is talking a commonly known scenario of  mothers being able to take time off and to take care of their child. His argument is that everyone should be provided with health care and to be taken care of by the government.

Bernie Breaks it Down

While the candidates agree on the fact that small businesses are the thriving part of America, Bernie makes sure to point out that he looks deeper into the issue. He talks about where the money earned should go to insure that the wealthy are not the ones always getting the money and benefits. This logos approach is very appealing for the "middle class".

Clinton's Firing Up Fizzles Out

During her opening argument, Hillary Clinton attempted to use pathos to get the audience riled up. While her use of pathos regarding gender equality was successful, as she stressed the fact that many young women feel that they can't grow up to be president, her attempt to capture the audience while talking about tax breaks for the wealthy ended more with a fizzle than with a bang. This was due to the tone in which she laid out her argument, as she sounded slightly monotone, while she should have sounded defiant and hopeful.

Straightforward Sanders

Unlike the other candidates, Bernie Sanders wasted no time in explaining how many children he has or what their jobs are (thanks Jim Webb, I'm glad I know that your daughter is a massage therapist). Sanders, instead, relied on the power of logos while he was establishing his ideas. He brings science into the debate with his discussion of the environment crisis. Additionally, his use of "middle class" and "taking back politics from the billionaires" are classic examples of pathos, to appeal to a broad range of Americans.

Hilary's Ego Too Big?

Hilary Clinton is constantly referring to her experience in government to enhance her arguments. This ethos approach draws the audience in because it makes it seem as though the country would be in good hands with her as the leader. She has mentioned that she was Secretary of State numerous times and does so every chance she gets.

Clinton Suits Up

Clinton states that she is proud to have served as the first lady,  a senator from New York, and secretary of state. She is establishing her ethos by stating these facts. She is elevating herself over the other candidates because she has served in many roles in the government. Also by stating that she was first lady, she gives herself the edge because she is the only candidate that can say this.

Chafee Slyly Attacks Hillary Clinton

In his opening argument, Lincoln Chafee successfully established his own ethos while tearing down that of Hillary Clinton. Chafee emphasized the fact that he stands on moral high ground, and has never been caught in a scandal during his years in office. This statement not only gives the audience a reason to trust him as a presidential candidate, but also highlights Clinton's recent debacle regarding her private emails. Chafee effectively set the stage for the rest of the debate in his opening argument.

Bernie's Pathos

Whatever Bernie is saying, anger is what is propelling his argument. He's all about his tone.

Lincoln Chaffee's Ethos

Lincoln Chaffee states that the "voters should assess the candidates experience, character and vision for the future as they make this important decision [electing the next president]." He then uses ethos to establish himself by highlighting his political experience, which includes serving as a mayor, U.S senator and governor of Rhode Island. His statement makes him a qualified a candidate as he has served in various levels of government and is the only candidate to have held these varied positions.

Bring On the Democrats!

Are you ready to .... live blog?!?

Watch the debate on CNN or stream it live on

Remember, in our live blogging format, post shorter, more frequent analyses highlighting individual rhetorical moments. How and how well are the candidates making their cases?

Monday, October 12, 2015

The Post-Modern Reality of Us

The Future of Us brings the post-modern analyzation of one's personal reality and experience without scientific truth. The two teenagers we follow along in the book are set in the 90s and find a disc that brings them to this strange program called "facebook". With every decision they make, their profiles change. In this scenario there is no scientific or philosophical explanation to what is happening, only their decisions and trials. 

The characters battle with making what they currently want to happen to happen with what is going or supposed to happen. Through this, they attempt to explain reality or rather how such reality and truths can be constructed. There is no understanding, only interpretations of what it means to us individually.

Friday, October 9, 2015

Trump is Berlusconi

Before clicking on this video of Silvio Berlusconi, it is obvious it's not going to be professional. Not only is it unprofessional from Italy's longest serving Prime Minister but it's also extremely objectifying for the woman, but also for her position as a police officer. Berlusconi is notorious for being a goof, or a fun leader that astray from other country leaders. In some people's eyes, Berlusconi could be a humorous and outgoing guy they'd love to go out with. But, there is a huge difference between hanging out and running a country. 

In 2010, Berlusconi was charged and convicted but after an appeal found not guilty of having sexual relations with an underage girl for money. Who, he also abused his leadership power and had her released from jail early for theft. This is a far out act who nobody would expect from a leader, even Berlusconi. But, Berlusconi has a long history of unequal and derogatory comments to women. Which sounds a lot like one of America's possible new president, Donald Trump.

Donald Trump has been caught numerous times making comments on people's appearance, especially women. Throughout his old show, Celebrity Apprentice, Trump continues to convince women that the only way they can reach success is by sexual appeal. Berlusconi is also well publicly known for going on TV shows and making many appearances as is Donald Trump. In my opinion, this is how they both get so many votes and become as popular as they are in the political world. For those who do not keep up with politics, which is many more than most people think, they vote with the name that sounds most familiar which is of course the name coming up on their TV, radios, magazines, etc. 

Besides the two of them being extremely obnoxious with women, they both also set their leadership goals as saving their country from debt and money problems. But, they both have had many failed and bankrupt companies. How can we expect them to fix money problems when they can't even save their own bills?

If we don't want a sexist, obnoxious, and secretive leader like Silvio Berlusconi, then don't vote for his American twin, Donald Trump. 

The Riddle of Experience vs. Memory

It is said that we have an experiencing self and a remembering self. In this TED talk, Daniel Kahneman explores how our two selves perceive happiness. Through various experiments, he found that no matter how long there is bliss during an experience, if a moment alters that experience in a negative way, the resounding memory will always be of that moment and feeling. The constant need to capture all these memories creates a disturbance in the experiencing self and what you believe to be the happiest of times. He makes a great point that the remembering self will perceive the experiencing self in a positive light if the experiencing self believes it is happy even if it is false.

A Visit From the Goon Squad plays with this in the structure of the writing. It brings in the perceptions of happiness and sadness in relation to the viewed and forward time periods. The remembering self reflecting upon and bringing comparison to the future happenings of the characters. Adding layers to the emotional states of the characters and their remembering selves, perceiving their memories as some of the greatest times in their lives but, also underlying the hidden pain masked by the experiencing self. Just as Daniel Kahneman states that memories will be "happy" if the experiencing self believes they are happy.

Postmodernism Through Film

Postmodernism is a style or concept of art that shies away from big ideologies and tries to satire society. Postmodernism started in the late 20th century and since then postmodernism has made a significant impact on all forms of art, including film.

Postmodernism has been showing up in film for quite some time, with many saying Monty Python and The Holy Grail (1975) was one of the first films to successful pull off a postmodernism feel. In order for a film to be postmodern it needs to use certain techniques that separate them from most films.

One example of these techniques used in Monty Python and The Holy Grail is the use of meta-storytelling. If a movie has meta-storytelling then it means the film is aware of itself, and Monty Python pulls this off beautifully. The Holy Grail is filled with hyper-unrealistic situations used by the filmmakers to pull the characters and the audience out of the movie. This technique was very rarely used prior and helped turn this movie into an instant classic.

Another technique is non-linear storytelling. This technique can be found in films like Pulp Fiction and Memento. The split up timeline of Memento is a postmodernism tactic that perfectly captures the struggles of memory loss and contradicts modern storytelling norms. This is also effective in Pulp Fiction. Tarantino is considered the master of postmodernist cinema. All of his films have some sort of a postmodern element to them. In Pulp Fiction, the linear storyline is replaced with a chapter system, like novels. This system affects the linear story of the film, but instead gives you a series of interconnecting stories. This technique allowed Tarantino to have one chapter end with the death of a main character near the middle of the film, and have that some character walk into the sunset at the end.

Satire is another key technique used in postmodern films. A great example is The Big Lebowski. This film takes shots at the structures of modern films. The character "The Dude" often quotes other when trying to make a point, indicating a lack of originality in the modern world. The film also has many wild, intriguing, and beautiful scenes, pointing at the modern filmgoer's obsessions with visual aspects of film. Finally the movie ends leaving many questions unanswered, this was used to break free from the classic style of storytelling, ending in a resolution.

Postmodernism in film is a growing technique that that has only improved over the years with films like Inception and Her. Its techniques and fresh ideas are essential to the modern film industry to break the norms and provide new experiences

Uniforms in Life

In the book, A Visit from the Goon Squad, one of the motifs mentioned was uniforms. This could be applied to real life because everybody identifies themselves with something, therefore making that one of their uniforms. They could identify themselves by the sports they play, the teams they're on, their gender, their economic status, and many other parts of life that are identifiable. This also contributes to who we see as enemies, friends, inferior, and superior. Grouping up like this is one of the causes of the ongoing stereotypes and separation we deal with in America today.